Thursday, September 3, 2020
Corrosive Base Titration Lab Report Paper Noah arrangement will be required to titrate 1. G of potassium hydrogen phthalate to the destroy endpoint. 3) utilize caring blue or phenolphthalein. Week 2 1) Determine the military of the Noah arranged from point of reference week. 2) Estimate what number of mils of Noah arrangement will be required to arrive at the caring blue endpoint. 3) Identify the stomach settling agent arrangement that will be utilized. Methodology 1) Preparation and normalization of Noah l. Get ready Noah arrangement by utilizing stock MM Noah_ get ready 6-mm of a 0. 5 M Noah. 2. Gauge an example of potassium hydrogen (KIP) between 1. 1 to 13 gram. Break up the KIP by including SO m I of water _ Swirl to finish arrangement. 4. Titrate be as exact as could be expected under the circumstances, rehash titration a few times. Arrangement and normalization of HCI. 1. Get ready hydrochloric corrosive stock arrangement. 2. Measure out an example Of HCI. Utilize a 10 ml volumetric pipette to move answer for carafe and include pointer. 3. Perform titration. 3) Antacid Titration 1. Measure out the measure of test chose 2) 2. Include an overabundance Of corrosive. We will compose a custom paper test on Acid-Base Titration Lab Report explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom paper test on Acid-Base Titration Lab Report explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom paper test on Acid-Base Titration Lab Report explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer
Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Taking into account that Hinduism comes up short on a joining conviction framework, what makes up the Hindu religion? Ã¢â¬Å"One huge cultural component is that India is one of the last bastions of the old worldÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. Its populace rehearses scores of different strict custom. Ã¢â¬Å"HinduismÃ¢â¬ is really an umbrella term alluding to the individuals living Ã¢â¬Å"on the opposite side of the Sindhu River.Ã¢â¬ The genuine name is the Ã¢â¬Å"Santayana DharmaÃ¢â¬ or Universal Truth or Way. One of Ã¢â¬Å"HinduismÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ most prominent qualities is its capacity to join the assorted convictions and practices of its kin in manners that are totally essential for India to proceed as it truly has. This is one motivation behind why the legislature of India is so forceful in its resistance to Christian and Muslim ministers. Strict like Christianity or Islam request a level of doctrinal consistency that would not function admirably for the Indians becauseÃ¢ they oblite rate the notable customs and convictions of the individuals who go under their creeds. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s inconceivably rich customs are their nationÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent wealth. As proof, think about the contrasts between present day India and Pakistan (in the past piece of India, isolated by Islam). India permits Muslims to live in harmony, generally, while Pakistan makes it everything except unimaginable for Hindus to live there. HinduismÃ¢â¬â¢s request of vegetarianism mirrors a significant reality. Antiquated IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s soul was its dairy cattle. This is still to a great extent evident today in the towns. The bulls furrow the fields with the goal that food can be developed. Bovines give milk, a significant fixing in numerous Indian nourishments and an indispensable wellspring of protein. Dairy animals waste is utilized for making cooking and warming flames just as some Ayurveda prescriptions. Ã¢â¬Å"Ahimsa,Ã¢â¬ peacefulness, keeps up a politeness that in any case would not exists thinking about the strict and political contrasts in the locale. The rank framework (the Ã¢â¬Å"varnashram dharmaÃ¢â¬ ) is tremendously defamed, yet in its unique structure this framework was powerful and ensured that Indians cooperated in a composed manner. The framework in the end was mishandled and turned into a supremacist framework (barmanÃ¢â¬â¢s regularly have the lightest sin shading and mudhas or unapproachable have the darkest, the others obscure in shading as one goes to the lower ranks). In past occasions, this framework was socially positive and empowered IndianÃ¢â¬â¢s to exist together. HinduismÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent quality remains its decent variety and its capacity to consolidate all convictions frameworks. For sure, one can actually contend that Christianity, Islam and all different strict frameworks are a piece of the Santayana Dharma or Universal Way of profound practice. India would be a totally better place without the Hindu dharma and it fits the district brilliantly. Hinduism, which is really known as the Santayana Dharma or Eternal Truth, has many joining conviction frameworks and settings. These incorporate the conviction that Truth is understandable and can be straightforwardly experienced. Hinduism is an umbrella term for a wide range of conventions. Every one of these customs utilizes various methods for edification and perspectives things a piece in an unexpected way. What for all intents and purposes every single Hindu group acknowledge in any case, is the acclaimed proclamation of the Rg Veda: Truth is One; the sages call it by various names. There is subsequently a hidden solidarity to the Hindu conviction framework. It additionally has profoundly shared feeling of profound quality and morals. The educating of ahimsa or peacefulness is one such conviction. The faith in transmigration is another just like the confidence in karma (activities and response), dharma (Truth) and marga (predetermination). These lessons show how all life is interconnected and are Ã¢â¬Å"part and pacelÃ¢â¬ of the Whole. Hinduism is the most seasoned religion on earth. It culture and conventions go back far into artifact. The individuals who experience childhood in Hindu families are saturated with old conventions and convictions from early stages on andÃ¢ they are considerably more indistinguishable than divergent. Accordingly it affects social Hindus just as on the individuals who convert into it. Those Hindus who go into genuine conversations with different religionists, just as those of us from different societies who are attracted to the Hindu Dharma, before long find that Hinduism is an amazingly intelligent and moving strict framework that offers experiential outcomes to the individuals who practice its different structures. In all manners the Hindu Dharma is at any rate similar to some other religion on earth. What Ã¢â¬Å"makes upÃ¢â¬ the Hindu religion is the way that it works and that it can exist inside such inner and outer diversity.Ã¢â¬ (~John of All Faith; Prakasa, Jagannatha)
Saturday, August 22, 2020
benjamin sprout Essay Benjamin Bloom: The Development of American Education America is loaded up with a background marked by huge occasions that have occurred after some time. Its intriguing to figure out how explicit occasions, individuals, places or subjects have incredibly affected our history in manners that despite everything sway our lives today. Since I truly esteem history as a subject, I have delighted in looking into Benjamin Bloom and the discoveries of his effect on American Education. He made numerous incredible commitments in the zone of instruction. A lot of his exploration concentrated on the investigation of ducational targets, a considerable lot of which have been assessed by various people, especially educators in the homeroom. His unprecedented discoveries got a handle on the consideration of numerous are as yet used today. Benjamin S. Blossom was a Jewish-American therapist. He was conceived in Lansford, Pennsylvania on February 21, 1913. Blossom had gone to the Pennsylvania State University where he acquired his single men and bosses degree in 1935. After doing as such, he at that point moved to the University of Chicago where he finished his Ph. D. n instruction in 1942 and filled in as an individual from the Board of Examinations. In 1944, he was designated as the Instructor of Educational Psychology. Sprout kicked the bucket at the age of eighty six at his home in Chicago on September 13, 1999. He was made due by his better half and two his two children, David and Jonathan. Sprout was a notable instructive scholar and educator. All together of intellectual therapists at the University of Chicago, Bloom built up his hypothesis on scientific classification and his book of Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Handbook 1: The Cognitive Domain was distributed in 1956. His hypothesis of scientific classification anyway is his most noteworthy work. We will compose a custom article test on benjamin sprout explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on benjamin sprout explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on benjamin sprout explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer It advanced the idea that any given assignment favors one of three mental spaces; subjective, emotional, and psychomotor. The intellectual space manages the capacity to process and use data in an important manner. The full of feeling space is worried about the mentalities and emotions that outcome from the learning procedure. The psychomotor area includes manipulative or physical abilities. Like Abraham Maslow and his chain of command of requirements, Bloom accepted that in every one of his mental areas there are levels of learning and an individual must be ble to perform at the lower level before they can progress. The subjective space includes both information and the advancement of scholarly abilities. In 1956, Bloom headed a gathering of instructive therapists who built up a grouping of levels of scholarly conduct that are critical to learning. Blossom found that over 95% of the test addresses understudies experience expect them to think just at the most minimal level conceivable. There are six significant classes, beginning from the least complex conduct to the most mind boggling assessment. This multi layered odel of ordering thinking as per the six degrees of multifaceted nature is known as Blooms Taxonomy. The levels give a premise to scrutinizing that guarantees that the understudies progress to their most significant level on comprehension. The catchphrases recorded after the definition speak to a portion of that undertakings that the understudy can achieve in every one of the classifications. The first level in Quite a while Taxonomy is Knowledge: Remembering or perceiving something recently experienced without essentially getting, utilizing, or cnanglng It. some 0T tne Keynuoras tnat Tall unaer Knowledge are: aennes, escribes, recognizes, knows, matches, names. The subsequent level is known as Comprehension: Understanding the material being imparted without fundamentally relating it to whatever else. A portion of the watchwords that fall under this class are: recognizes, gauges, clarifies, find. The third level is called Application: Using general ideas to take care of an issue. A portion of the catchphrases that fall under application are: apply, illustrate, decipher, sketch, settle. The fourth level is called Analysis: The capacity to separate material into its segment parts. Catchphrases include: break down, evaluate, compute, censure, try, question. The fifth level is called Synthesis: The capacity to assemble parts to frame another entirety. Catchphrases include: organize, gather, gather, build, oversee, plan, get ready. The last level, however not in the least the least significant, is Evaluation: The capacity to Judge that estimation of material for a given reason. Watchwords may include: contend, survey, Judge,predict, rate, esteem, assess. In ED 205, we just spoke quickly about Bloom and his scientific categorization. Be that as it may, when you truly dissect it and investigate all the means, you as a future educator start to nderstand and evaluate the estimation of it for your youngsters and how it can change their learning experience. I for one worth Blooms Taxonomy and I accept that it is a fundamental procedure that the vast majority use to learn and recall another idea. Practically all activities start with a thought where understudies are to make their own layout or thought and afterward assess and examine that thought. When the thought has been applied it will enable the understudies to comprehend the idea, which makes recalling that it a lot simpler. As indicated by www. pro]ects. coe. uga. edu, While it ought to be noticed that other ducational scientific classifications and various leveled frameworks have been created, Blooms Taxonomy which stays, much after about fifty years, the true norm. An ever increasing number of instructors are starting to utilize this as a technique for ordering instructive objectives and goals in their study hall. Sprouts Taxonomy has additionally been utilized by analysts and heads, old and new, at any degree of training vital. This is genuinely what gave Bloom the desire to con nect his name to these terms that he made in his new innovation, for they will consistently be a piece of his heritage, an eternity broadly utilized basic reasoning apparatus. In class we talked about why Blooms Taxonomy is an exceptionally accommodating apparatus to use as you being to design your own exercises as an instructor. A few educators may contend that his scientific classification is not, at this point utilized in todays instructive world since it is viewed as ineffectual. Everybody has their own contentions for various thoughts. The way that I am as yet finding out about it today and can see the effect it can have on future teachers and understudies, for example, myself, I realize that this basic reasoning technique will consistently stay in my life just as the lives of numerous others, regardless of what their calling might be.
Case Analysis of Donner Company and Eiic Paper The Donner Company made printed circuit sheets to specificaiton of an assortment of gadgets makes. It creates and offers products to its clients. While EIIC is an insurance agency which center basically around building protection. It creates and offers administration to clients. Issues for Donner Company: 1. For activity issue, there is a creation bottleneck exist in companyÃ¢â¬â¢s activity, the moving bottleneck. The moving of procedure changed every now and again starting with one then onto the next in the assembling framework. Each individual requests of various clients consistently change subtleties since variable solicitation or unfit things. That will bring our laborers and remaining task at hand a ton of difficulty. Simultaneously, we have the example of four-day surge orders. This thing will postpone the procedure as it in some cases needs modify at a couple of activities. It is because of laborers are moved starting with one activity then onto the next one as demandÃ¢â¬â¢s changing so a few workstations are over-burden. In any case, this circumstance just occurred during mass requests, while in short requests, for example, under 8 circuit sheets, Arthur Dief can complete it solo and great. Likewise, when the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s engineers have plan issues, they are allowed to make a call to activity part which can interfere with ordinary creation. That can be one issue which disturbed the procedure. There is an arrangement that the shipment ought to be done before end of a month, which legitimately lead to the enormous measure of shipment toward the month's end. We will compose a custom article test on Case Analysis of Donner Company and Eiic explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Case Analysis of Donner Company and Eiic explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Case Analysis of Donner Company and Eiic explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer This won't just carry huge strain to transportation office, yet in addition badly affects deals. Simultaneously, laborers are picking up the pace for completing shipment, they would not think progressively about productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality. Likewise, principles of request continue changing as often as possible will likewise present to us a similar outcome. 2. Plummer found that a few machines are inert regularly, which unquestionably down and out our yield. This is identified with the regularly moving. Since, the time laborers squandered on moving starting with one station then onto the next can be considered the inactive time, which is equivalent to abbreviate the ideal opportunity for delivering. As indicated by these we can see, the activity techniques are not also proceeded as it ought to be. Likewise, we have to grow new thoughts which can be utilized to improve our procedure, for example, rescheduling orders and reassigning laborers, which can raise our efficiency in further days. 3. For administrative issue, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t figure organization did great job on investigation of productsÃ¢â¬â¢ quality since beneficiary returns and reprocessing are continuing expanding. In spite of the fact that it is extremely hard to examine stricter as their requests are not the same as one another, they despite everything need a compelling strategy to keep their productsÃ¢â¬â¢ great quality. As in September, as a result of inadequate tasks and modifying of circuit sheets, companyÃ¢â¬â¢ s preshipment dismiss rates expanded and lead to a 6% misfortune on benefit. Additionally the organization as less shipments because of creation postponed for 9 days and revamping expanded. Albeit recruited 8 new laborers for helping previous work, the organization despite everything need to prepare them and it would require some investment for them to getting acquainted with this work. Proposals: 1. So as to take care of the issue of creation bottleneck, the stir heap up and run out in the activity framework, the organization should just be tolerating orders that are doable to do and those can be conveyed on schedule. So the organization can concentrate on the unique requests or point by point solicitation of clients, additionally develop their notoriety by finish request immediately. In this circumstance, the inactive occasions can be decreased as all laborers need to complete their undertaking. The most significant is, they should decrease the moving of laborers starting with one activity then onto the next. Despite the fact that each specialist knows more than one expertise, it is better for them to remain in one station and finish one single procedure as it can stop burn through so much time and diminish turnover. 2. For the delivering procedure, we should get a superior and increasingly monetary path as a few procedure has at least two creating strategy or devices. As Drill process, they utilize Manual and CNC drill working at same time. As a matter of fact, it is smarter to utilize CNC Drill all the procedure when delivering number is equivalent or more prominent than 6, and manual when lower than 6. For Profile, when greater than 200, use CNC Router, and assuming less, use Punch Press. Display 2. 3. For the since quite a while ago run technique, it is better for the organization to set up two lines for creation, one is for standard creation and the other is fore unique requests. Under this circumstance, we can set a minority number of laborers produce on the normal line, on which we can improve our work productivity as everybody knows about all the procedure. In the mean time, we can set a larger part number of laborers deal with the new line that can update, adjust of finish explicit requests. It won't upset the ordinary delivering line as they are isolated and laborers will be more spotlight on their occupations, which can show signs of improvement item quality and proficiency. Likewise, they will become acclimated to the variable request circumstance, which can improve their strength. 4. As returns and reprocessing are keeping high, we have to improve our administrative technique. First we have to improve our review. We ought to draw out a point by point and clear standard for laborers to allude to. Likewise, we have to upgrade our assessment by directors and gap them into each procedure and investigate each system, by which we can stop inadequate items as quickly as time permits and maintain a strategic distance from further work on pointless items. Simultaneously, we have to preparing our workers on delivering aptitude and further information, so as to get less modify or reprocessing. Issues for EIIC 1. It is the ideal opportunity for EIIC to improve their administration productivity. As we probably am aware, the essential procedures for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s auditors to complete their obligation are appeared in Exhibit 1-2. The ideal opportunity for showing up at mishap place is under 60 minutes. It is quick and the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s representatives are glad for this. In any case, then again, they need an exceptionally prolonged stretch of time for setting up the FIO report, as a Medium-Sized branchÃ¢â¬â¢s normal time is 26 days. This is the greatest bottleneck of procedure. As the organization all utilized capable controllers, they ought not work in such a moderate condition. One of the most likely reasons is the working two jobs. Case disclosed to us that there are evaluated almost half to 70% of EIICÃ¢â¬â¢s overseers had low maintenance work. Despite the fact that it is allowed in the organization, I feel that will bring down the productivity and impact of their unique work in EIIC as working two jobs will cost a few physical power and time which ought to be placed into the EIICÃ¢â¬â¢s work and get the FIO procedure quicker wrapped up. We utilize the normal level of out-working individuals: (50%+70%)/2=60%. In the event that these limit are generally being utilized to get ready for the FIO report, the time spending on that will at any rate diminish to: 26/(1+60%)=16. 25 days, which is a major advancement. 2. EIICÃ¢â¬â¢s advertise methodology should be altered. From the case we found that EIICÃ¢â¬â¢s benefit is diminishing these years while they used to win the market. As we probably am aware, EIIC is an insurance agency which is center just around assembling protection. While the greater part of other insurance agencies have a wide range of protection, for example, extra security and clinical protection, this is a tremendous market. The organization is explicit and proficient on designing, the vast majority of EIICÃ¢â¬â¢s office and workers are in building foundation and experience. It is outlandish for the organization to change over its market to various types of protection. The nly compelling transient methodology for the organization is to develop itself as an upper level building insurance agency which is the best and well known for its great assistance quality to pull in more clients. 3. Partners have strife between one another during working. The principle explanation behind boss inspectorsÃ¢â¬â¢ having struggle with chiefs is they have a few comparable occupations or utilitarian power yet donÃ¢â¬â¢t have comparative standards for unraveling them. In reality, these two jobs have various things to perform. Supervisor is progressively monetary and administrative yet the main controller is all the more building and specialized. Supervisor is more spotlight on working business easily, getting more benefit and upgrade entire organization. While reviewer needs to ensure each issue is understood totally and most assuredly. They demand various perspectives so will prompt diverse activity, as one of them sees the different as Ã¢â¬Å"went by bookÃ¢â¬ . 4. Turnover of representative is excessively high. Two primary purposes behind its high turnover are: the pay level in EIIC is similarly lower among a similar business organization; proficient investigators are profoundly expected in the human asset markets. Either in view of trackers Ã¢â¬Ëaction or workersÃ¢â¬â¢ own willing, once there is a superior compensation, they will leave EIIC. Simultaneously, EIIC gave their laborers a decent stage to rehearse themselves, like IBM, and get them progressively alluring to other organization. As guaranteeing, the vast majority of them accepted there was no drawn out vocation way on it. Clearly EIICÃ¢â¬â¢s staffs have a difficult issue of profession arranging. Suggestion: 1. Change the previous advertising methodology for the organization. As EIIC is well known for the designing protection, it is increasingly powerful for EIIC to prop up on with this objective in present moment. In any case, they have to improve the present procedure as progressively upper level. We can find the organization as a profoundly s
Friday, August 21, 2020
Research Design - Assignment Example The plan is fitting since it audits top notch randomized controlled preliminaries, which are critical to prove based medication. Furthermore, the plan planned for giving a complete synopsis of ongoing writing from experimentally perceived databases. Blueman and Bousfield used a few online databases while directing the survey. A portion of the databases that they utilized incorporate Medline, British Nursing Index, Athens, EMBASE, and Cumulative Index to Nursing (Blueman, and Bousfield, 2012). Since this sort of configuration frequently uses straightforward and target way to deal with look into union and targets limiting predisposition, makes it fitting for investigating the specific research question. Blueman and Bousfield reasoned that the examination gave solid proof that connect the utilization of hatchlings treatment to decreasing the bacterial burden in incessantly tainted injuries (2012). The creators, Blueman, and Bousfield recognize the confinements of this specific investigation. They point the use of fluid mechanism for examines that used live parasites as a key impediment. Moreover, they note the absence of normalization for the natural specialty of the microscopic organisms as a
Tuesday, August 11, 2020
Private School Vs State school The OE Blog It is one of the biggest education conundrums of our time and one of the most hotly debated topics at university, in government and in the community. What are the advantages and disadvantages of private schools and state schools, and is the UK education system inherently unfair? Prejudice and Advantage Private school pupils make up only around 7% of UK students (rising to 18% at sixth form level). Yet almost 45% of successful applicants to our top Oxbridge universities are privately educated. As private schools are a hugely expensive luxury available only to the most affluent, many believe that these statistics are proof of an unfair bias towards the upper classes of UK society. In the current cabinet, Prime Minister David Cameron, Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg and Chancellor George Osborne (among others) all attended extremely elite private schools including Eton and St. Paulâs. Yet the Ipsos Mori poll for the Independent Schools Council showed that only 57% of state school parents would choose to switch to the private system if they were able to afford to. So what are the arguments that steer parents to send their child to a state or private school? Reasons For Private School Class Sizes Class sizes tend to be much smaller at private school, with a much better teacher to student ratio. Pupils get much more one-to-one time with teachers and much greater personal attention may be given to an individual studentâs particular academic needs and weaknesses. There is also often a greater amount of support for specific educational needs such as dyslexia and reading difficulties. Discipline Alongside smaller class sizes discipline also improves accordingly. At a state school, where class sizes are much larger, it is often harder for teachers to maintain control of a large group of youngsters, whilst private schools, with fewer students in one class, tend to have much better records for discipline. This in turn translates to more quality teaching time and greater time for personal academic attention to be given to individual students. Results With top private schools like Eton, Winchester and Harrow topping the academic league tables for A level and GCSE results year after year and sending vast numbers of pupils to Oxbridge, the results of academic exams speak clearly in favour of private schools. But there is much debate about the relative merits of this academic elitism, with many parents believing that a gifted and intellectual child will thrive and be successful in any school, whilst a weaker child may benefit from the extra academic attention at a private school. Religion Some religious parents choose a private school because it belongs to a particular denomination and their children will regularly attend services. But whilst most private schools hold regular chapel services, it is now fairly unusual for pupils to attend for religious reasons. Extra â" Curricular Activities Many private schools offer an excellent range of sporting, musical and dramatic extra-curricular activities, with trips abroad to practise modern languages and frequent visits to museums and the theatre. Although the price tag that accompanies these treats is eye-watering, many parents are willing to pay to provide their children with these broadening cultural experiences. Reasons For State School Elitism There is a strong general feeling that private schools are elitist and âposhâ, with many denouncing those who attend them as âtoffsâ, a charge often levelled at David Cameron. Those who attend private schools often face accusations of snobbery and arrogance, and there is a well-documented problem of private school pupils being bullied on their way home as they are identified by their obligatory school uniforms. Some parents feel that this is too high a price to pay for academic advantage, particularly if it will influence others against their children in later life. Social Exposure Many modern parents are concerned with the breadth and complexity of their childrenâs social experiences, and feel it is important for them to mix and socialise with others from all cultural backgrounds from a young age. They feel strongly that meeting and befriending young people from all cultures, religions and economic backgrounds is essential to creating a fair, unprejudiced outlook on life. Political Beliefs Due to the inherent bias against state school pupils in an education system which favours those who can pay for better teaching, many parents feel strongly that the UK system is unfair and should be changed. It is common for these parents to send their own children to state schools as a matter of principle even if they are financially able to choose private schools if they wanted to. Do you believe one schooling system is better than the other? Have you got personal school experiences to share? Let us know using the form below.
Saturday, June 20, 2020
Introduction to Managed Care (Essay Sample) Content: Introduction to Managed Care Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction to Managed Care Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) is a managed care plan that requires the insured to obtain their health care from a specified network provider to which they are restricted. Those who join the network are assigned a Primary Care Physician (PCP) that ensures the assigned member receives health care services. The advantage of HMO is less out-of-pocket expenditure by members owing to less copayment fees paid for doctor visits. The disadvantage, however, is that members are restricted to the network and they must obtain a referral in order to obtain services from outside the network. On the other hand, Preferred Provider Organization (PPO), provides both in-network and out-of-network health care coverage. Members incur lower costs when they stay within the network although they are not restricted to that network as in the HMO. However, when a member opts to seek for health care from outside the network the expenses are high. The advantage of PPOs is that they offer a wide network for members to select from as well as a large pool of doctors. The major disadvantage is h...