Saturday, May 23, 2020
Chicago residents are unable to do so. In 2014, when CHA reopened its waiting lists, almost a full quarter of the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s population applied for a spot (Newman 2014). By 2013, the number of renters in Chicago that were rent burdened increased to 51% (Capperis, Ellen and Kaufman 2015, 14). The end of 2015 found 124,357 people on the CHA wait list (CHA 2015). It is against the backdrop of increasing poverty, higher rent burdens and a lack of affordable housing in the city that criticism has been launched at CHA for failing to release the total amount of vouchers they received from the federal government as well as failing to meet their stated goal of 25,000 units, but also for leaving a percentage of units Ã¢â¬Å"offlineÃ¢â¬ . By offline they mean that those units are not available to rent usually for maintenance reasons or because the unit is pending redevelopment. By the second quarter of FY2015, CHA still had 2,823 offline units (CHA 2016, 20). Since the CHA received a Moving to Work (MTW) grant from HUD, they are exempt from many of the typical reporting requirements mandated by HUD. This leaves CHA with an enormous amount of flexibility in using funds and moving funds around. This lack of accountability has been a common community complaint. As one local newspaper said, Ã¢â¬Å"As the city looks elsewhere, the Chicago Housing Authority has been quietly and steadily perpetrating some of the most disturbing institutional mismanagement in a city where jaw-dropping corruption is a spectatorShow MoreRelatedTyphoid Fever Essay examples1759 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthat usually enters a person through oral means, though it can be transmitted from flies and other insects. When the bacterium passes down to the bowel, it penetrates through the intestinal lining to the underlying tissue. If the immune system is unable to stop the infection, the bacterium will multiply and then spread to the bloodstream, after which the first signs of disease are observed in the form of fever. The bacterium penetrates further into the bone marrow, liver, and bile ducts, from whichRead MoreWho Were The Top 2 Candidates?1849 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages write down the three questions that you ranked of highest priority. You will now look at how both Hilary Clinton and Donald Trump view each question. Ã¢â¬ ¢ SHOULD PRODUCERS BE REQUIRED TO LABEL GENETICALLY ENGINEERED FOODS (GMOS)? Ã¢â¬ ¢ SHOULD FLORIDA RESIDENTS WHO OR LEASE SOLAR EQUIPMENT PAY ADDITIONAL TAXES? Ã¢â¬ ¢ SHOULD PHOTO ID BE REQUIRED TO VOTE? Research your questions as they pertain to the candidatesÃ¢â¬â¢ beliefs. Do this for the 3 questions that you choose as a high priority deal breaker. Your descriptionRead More The Modernist Attributes of C.L.R. JamesÃ¢â¬â¢s Minty Alley Essay examples4162 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesTheprotagonist is responsible for the camouflaging events of his own sexual consciousness, attempting to maintain a disinterested distance from the observed events of the barracks-yard. He takes a great deal of care in hiding his spyhole from the other residents: Haynes removed his pillow from the top of his bed to the bottom, fixed his elbows on it and glued his eyes to the peephole, which he had enlarged and arranged (and camouflaged) so as to command a wide and comprehensive view of the whole yard (54)Read MoreCorruption Is Not New?2148 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesdemocracies such as the USA, France, Germany and Japan have also seen several corruption scandals over the past decades and had also fought against changes that could eliminate or reduce the perception of corruption, for example, over 70 elected members of Chicago local government have been charged and imprisoned on corruption charges . In 2016 New York airwave exploded when three high ranking NYPD police officers were arrested and charged for corruption and the mayor currently under investigation (Cohen etRead MoreEssay about Woodstock, End of an Era2425 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesthat at the age of eighteen you were old enough to die for your country, but you could not vote until you were twenty-one. This led to many antiwar protests, including those that marched on New York, The Pentagon and the Democratic Convention in Chicago, 400,000 strong in one instance. In nationwide anti-draft protest in 1967, 124 protestors had been arrested which included a Woodstock headliner, Joan Beaz. During this time of war and civil rights issues there were also the assassinations of fourRead More sports stadium financing in the 1990s Essay2859 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesany office break room, local tavern, or play field. The utter discontent of the increasing cost of attending professional sportin g events. Distain ranges from players salaries to cost of parking and concessions. One local newscaster, channel 5 in Chicago, Illinois Ã¢â¬â April, 2003, reports that for a family of four to attend a major league baseball game on opening day costs between $160 and $200 dollars. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The precursor to this cost was a decade of skyrocketing salaries andRead MoreSwami Vivekananda14669 Words Ã |Ã 59 Pagesfriends at Madras, Raja of Ramnad and Maharajas of Mysore and Khetri, Vivekananda set out on his journey to the USA. In the west Vivekananda perhaps, is best remembered as the man who stole the show at the 1893 World Parliament of Religions in Chicago, Illinois, where he earned wild applause for beginning his address with the famous words, Sisters and brothers of America. Vivekanandas arrival in the USA has been identified by many to mark the beginning of western interest in Hinduism not asRead MoreProject on Risk Management46558 Words Ã |Ã 187 PagesNostro Accounts through sophisticated computerized system Ã¢â¬Å"MICYSÃ¢â¬ The operations of IndusInd Bank were started with a capital base of Rs. 1,000 million. Of the total 1,000 million, Rs. 600 million was raised through private placements by Indian Residents and Rs. 400 million was contributed by Non- Indusind bank is one of the leading private sector banks having a nationwide presence to cater all the needs of retail as well as corporate customers. It has introduced a number of technologically superiorRead MoreTrader JoeÃ¢â¬â¢s vs. Whole Foods Market5259 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesproduce to its stores by sourcing locally and having short and flexible supply chains. In the case of fruits and vegetables, Whole Foods has buying relationships with local farmers who supply the store with seasonal produce. Thus, if one farmer is unable to produce a sufficient amount of yellow corn or heirloom tomatoes, the shortfall can be made up by another farmer. Although challenging to perfect, these short supply chains are agile and difficult for other big retailers to duplicate. 4 http://wwwRead MoreInstructor Manual37126 Words Ã |Ã 149 Pagesresponsible for: taking incoming phone orders; discussing the features and options associated with products, pricing and availability; checking order status; handling complaints; and taking messages for other company employees. Very infrequently, a CSR is unable to assist a caller and has to redirect the call to the supervisor. Incoming calls can be classified into one of six categories: standard product order, custom order, order status check, new account creation, hearing aid supply order (e.g. replacement
Monday, May 18, 2020
North Carolina AT State University is a public, historically black research university with an acceptance rate of 61%. Located in Greensboro, North Carolina and founded in 1891, North Carolina AT is one of 17 institutions that make up the University of North Carolina System. The university offers 54 undergraduate degrees through its eight colleges. Among undergraduates, engineering, business, and communications are the most popular majors. High achieving students might consider the Honors Program for a range of benefits including enrichment activities and smaller classes. On the athletic front, the N.C. AT Aggies compete in the NCAA Division IÃ Mid-Eastern Athletic ConferenceÃ (MEAC). Considering applying to North Carolina AT? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, North Carolina AT State University had an acceptance rate of 61%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 61 students were admitted, making North Carolina ATs admissions process competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 11,088 Percent Admitted 61% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 32% SAT Scores and Requirements North Carolina AT requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 75% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 480 560 Math 470 550 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of North Carolina ATs admitted students fall within the bottom 29% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to North Carolina AT scored between 480 and 560, while 25% scored below 480 and 25% scored above 560. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 470 and 550, while 25% scored below 470 and 25% scored above 550. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1110 or higher will have particularly competitive chances at North Carolina AT. Requirements North Carolina AT does not require the SAT writing section or SAT Subject tests. Note that AT participates in the scorechoice program, which means that the admissions office will consider your highest score from each individual section across all SAT test dates. ACT Scores and Requirements North Carolina AT requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 57% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 15 21 Math 17 22 Composite 17 22 This admissions data tells us that most of North Carolina ATs admitted students fall within theÃ bottom 33% nationallyÃ on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to North Carolina AT received a composite ACT score between 17 and 22, while 25% scored above 22 and 25% scored below 17. Requirements North Carolina AT does not provide information about the schools ACT policy. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA of North Carolina ATs incoming freshmen class was 3.61, and 56% of incoming students had average GPAs of 3.5 and above. These results suggest that most successful applicants to North Carolina AT have primarily A and high B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph North Carolina AT State University Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to North Carolina AT State University. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting inÃ with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances North Carolina AT State University, which accepts fewer than two-thirds of applicants, has a selective admissions process. If your SAT/ACT scores and GPA fall within the schools average ranges, you have a strong chance of being accepted. However, North Carolina ATs admissions process is not entirely numerical. The university evaluates theÃ rigor of your high school curriculum, not grades alone. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent students who were accepted to North Carolina AT. You can see that most had unweighted high school GPAs of B- or better, combined SAT scores (ERWM) of 850 or higher, and ACT composite scores of 15 or higher. If You Like North Carolina A T, You May Also Like These Schools East Carolina UniversityFlorida AM UniversityHoward UniversitySpelman CollegeUniversity of North Carolina - Chapel HillUniversity of North Carolina - CharlotteUniversity of North Carolina - Asheville All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and North Carolina AT State University Undergraduate Admissions Office.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
There are many themes shown throughout the book To Kill a Mockingbird. The author, Harper Lee made the novel take place in the 1930s and in a fictional town called Maycomb County in Alabama. The narrator was a young girl in the novel names Scout Finch. Throughout the book Scout, her older brother Jem, and her best friend Dill discover new things and become more mature. Then towards the end of the book Atticus, the father of Jem and Scout, agrees to defend a black man named Tom Robinson, who is accused of raping a white girl. In the book To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, racial intolerance and courage are two of the many themes demonstrated throughout the novel. Racial Intolerance is a theme encountered all throughout To Kill aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It shows that whites are treated differently than blacks. If Boo Radley was black, he wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve probably went to jail and not the courthouse basement. As a result, throughout the book whites and blacks are treated differently and the blacks are kinda afraid of the whites. Another theme that is shown in To Kill a Mockingbird is courage. In the book, a blacked man named Tom Robinson is accused of raping a white girl. The father of the white girl, Bob Ewell is the one that said he saw Tom Robinson rape his daughter. Atticus, the father of Jem and Scout, shows a lot of courage by defending Tom Robinson in court. In the book Atticus says, Ã¢â¬Å"In our courts, when its a white mans word against a black mans, the white man always winsÃ¢â¬ (Lee 295). This shows that he basically knows that its impossible for Tom to win in court, but he defends him anyways because he thinks itÃ¢â¬â¢s the right thing to do. Atticus tried his best to help Tom win, but in the end it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen. Tom shouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve won but just like Atticus said thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no way a black man is going to win against an all white jury. If somebody else wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve defended Tom, he probably wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve lost in court right away, but Atticus tried really hard to win it for him. Therefore that is how Atticus showed courage in the book, he went along by himself to go against all the whites and defend the black man, Tom Robinson, because he thought it was the right thing to do. Boo Radley also shows courage throughout the novel.Show MoreRelatedTo Kill A Mockingbird Analysis1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Influence of Setting on Themes and Events in To Kill A Mockingbird Vs. A Time to Kill A setting is used in literature to highlight the major themes and also shape the events of the narration. Though set in different time periods, the settings of To Kill a Mockingbird by Lee Harper and A Time to Kill by Joel Schumacher serves to reinforce various themes that highlight various aspects of American history. Racial segregation and issues associated with it such as the lifestyle of the Southern stateRead MorePrejudice And Intolerance : Societal Values And Traditional Values2159 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesRacial Prejudice/Intolerance Created By Societal Values And Traditional Values In Ã¢â¬Å"DesireeÃ¢â¬â¢s BabyÃ¢â¬ and To Kill A Mockingbird Ã¢â¬Å"Racism isn t born Ã¢â¬ ¦ it s taught Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ , said by Denis Leary is true. Racism is not a physical obstacle one can conquer, but a mental challenge which is created through oneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in life. The novel To Kill A Mockingbird by Harper Lee tells the story of a white man, Atticus Finch defending a black man, Tom Robinson against the rape of a white girl. Throughout the novelRead MoreRacism and Discrimination in to Kill a Mockingbird Essay870 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRacism and Discrimination as the theme in To Kill A Mockingbird To Kill a Mockingbird written by Harper Lee is a Pulitzer Prize winning novel, that offers a view of life through a young girlÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes. The novel is focused on two main themes which are racism and discrimination. Racism is probably the biggest theme of the novel. It comes in as an open and subtle manner that is being displayed through speeches and actions. Racism in Maycomb takes mainly the form of having white people against blackRead MoreTo Kill A Mockingbird Southern Injustice Analysis853 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescommunity. Sadly, in To Kill a Mockingbird, the people of Maycomb allow the town to fall into traps of racial and personal injustice, treating others without common respect and courtesy. This in turn results in a community characterized by unfair thinking and assumptions. The theme of injustice surfaces throughout To Kill A Mockingbird, as shown by the false accusation of Tom Robinson, the attacking of Jem and Scout, and the way the town treats and talks about Boo Radley. With racial bias at a high pointRead MoreEssay about Prejudice Runs Deep in To Kill A Mockingbird1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPrejudice Runs Deep in To Kill A Mockingbird Ã To Kill A Mockingbird takes place in small town Maycomb, Alabama, a depression era town where people move slowly and twenty-four hours seems longer.Ã The narrator of the story is a six-year-old girl named Jean Louise Finch, a tomboy who hates wearing dresses and goes by the nickname Scout.Ã Scouts being a tomboy is of no little significance because while we are treated to a sweet and affectionate portrayal of Maycomb at the novels opening,Read MoreKill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ is a classic piece of American literature written by Harper Lee. She illustrates a theme of the intolerance of prejudice and the quick judgments of others. The book takes the reader back to the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s in a small town known as Maycomb. Harper Lee chose to give the reader an innocent, pure view of the different situations in the book through the eyes of a young girl named Jean Louise Finch who is also known as Scout. To Kill a Mockingbi rd is a pleasurable read for people ofRead MoreEssay on Harper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHarper Lees To Kill a Mockingbird Courage is the quality of mind that enables one to face danger with confidence, resolution, and gain a firm control of oneself. Many of the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird showed courage in their own way. Courage can come in many different forms: physical, mental, emotional and moral. Courage is not the only main theme displayed in To Kill a Mockingbird; prejudice and education are also very important themes exhibited throughout the progression of theRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"Shoot All The Blue Jays If You Want, If You Can HitÃ¢â¬â¢Em,1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Shoot all the blue jays if you want, if you can hitÃ¢â¬â¢em, but remember itÃ¢â¬â¢s a sin to kill a mockingbird,Ã¢â¬ ( Lee pg 90) In Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s famous novel, To Kill A Mockingbird, the author emphasizes the major issue of justice representing the symbol of a mockingbird. Taking place in the 1930s in the Deep South, a time when racial inequality and great intolerance were highly prevalent. The novel come s out as an injustice to the most gracious and thoughtful but unjustly accused citizens from the townRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird Identity1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslives shape our identity? I will explore how this quotation is reflected in the novel Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ by Harper Lee, the film Ã¢â¬ËWitnessÃ¢â¬â¢, by Peter Weir, and the film Ã¢â¬ËThe Lion KingÃ¢â¬â¢ by Roger Allers. The meaning of identity is not easily defined. Identity generally refers to the stable defining characteristics of a person that makes them an individual. I will explore a number of parallel themes evident in all three texts; the influence of courage, violence, discrimination, religion andRead MoreRacial Prejudice2231 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesthere is still resistance to accept those who appear different amongst us. Racial Prejudice is an insidious moral and social disease affecting populations all over the world. It can be diagnosed by its various symptoms and manifestations which include fear, intolerance, separation, segregation, discrimination and hatred. While all of these symptoms of racial prejudice may be evident, the single underlying cause of Racial Prejudice is ignorance. While all humans belong to the same species, races are
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction: I. Imaging being sick for many years, trying every new treatment but nothing works. Your bills are piling up, your family is getting restless and your pain is not subsiding; only increasing rapidly. If you were given the choice to end your life, would you do it? II. Medical advances have increased the length of the average life innumerably, by prolonging death, but this involves challenging medical ethics. Keeping a large number of very ill people alive with these medical technologies, there is also a possibility of suffering; discomfort and diminished quality of life. III. Physician assisted suicide is the intentional ending of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life to relieve their pain and suffering. Those suffering or non-responsiveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Both have the same end result, just different means to the end, Ã¢â¬Å"in assisted suicide, the person take the death-inducing product; in euthanasia, another individual administers it. Both are self-willed deaths. The former is self-willed and self-inflicted; the latter is self-willed and other-inflictedÃ¢â¬ . Transition: Although there are two different methods, they both share a vast similarity of commonalities regarding the legality and ethics. It is a very serious matter and the decision to do either should not be made rashly. Regardless of which approach is contemplated, not everyone can request euthanasia or PAS. It is a very selected, well regulated procedure. II. According to Legal and Psychological Consideration in the Development of a Euthanasia Statue for Adults in the United States by Donna M. Maier and Michael J. Newman, there are six cases, deferring in psychological and legal impact, in which adults may request euthanasia: (1) while healthy, a competent person may request euthanasia should certain circumstances occur, and make advance directive to that end; (2) a person who has just become aware that he/she is terminally ill may make an advance directive; (3) a person who is in the middle stages of a terminal illness may make an advance directive; (4) a person in the end stages of a terminal illness may make an advance
Compare and Contrast: New England and the Mid Atlantic Colonists began arriving in the Americas in the early 1600Ã¢â¬â¢s. Some were seeking wealth and opportunity in the New World, others fleeing from persecution in their native country. Two distinct regions of the 13 British colonies were New England and the Mid Atlantic and though the two areas were governed by the British, in some ways they were quite different. We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and Contrast: New England and the Mid Atlantic or any similar topic only for you Order Now Though they share similar backgrounds, the New England and Mid Atlantic regions differed in the structure of their economy, their tolerance of religions, and the structure of their self-government. The North American colonies were all rich with resources; as part of the mercantilist system, raw materials were what the colonists sold to England for profit. Each region had their own specific contribution to this system; colonists in the Mid Atlantic region grew crops such as wheat, rye and flax. The climate and soil of the Mid Atlantic region was well suited for the cultivation of grains, and the Mid Atlantic colonies became known as the Ã¢â¬Å"bread basket coloniesÃ¢â¬ . By contrast, the New England region experienced long, cold winters and had rocky soil unsuitable for an economy based on farming. The New England region mainly traded furs, timber, and fish. Religion was a very important aspect of colonial life; many people came to America in search of religious freedom. The New England colonies were predominantly Puritan, and the Puritans wanted everyone to worship as they did. In order to ensure the Puritan way of worship was practiced, punishments were given to those who did not oblige. There was greater religious diversity in the Mid Atlantic region, including Quakers, Catholics, and Protestants. The Mid Atlantic colonies were the most diverse in America, and such an assortment made the dominance of one religion difficult. Finally, the colonial regions all had forms of self-government as they sought to assert local control. In the different regions, the priority of the colonies was very important in the formation of the governments. In the New England colonies, strict democratic law was practiced. Only men in good standing with the church were allowed to voice their opinions at the town hall meetings which decided laws. By contrast, in the Mid Atlantic colonies landowning men were represented, and political power was in the hands of the wealthy. The colonies of North America have similar origins and purposes, but are quite different in many ways. The New England and Mid Atlantic regions of colonial America were similar because of their role to England, the importance of religion and the fact that they were self-governing, but were different because of the resources found in each region, religious tolerance, and how one received the right to take part in politics. How to cite Compare and Contrast: New England and the Mid Atlantic, Essay examples
Question: Discuss about the Clinical Reasoning Cycle for Hip Fracture in Elderly. Answer: Introduction The second highest causation of morbidity and mortality rate amongst the general population is observed to be falling, succeeding road related accidents. Major injuries and mortality rates are caused by severe cases of falling and in other cases the patients become incapacitated, burdening their family members and community members (Grivna, Eid Abu-Zidan, 2014). The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), published records that show head and bone injuries are now a major cause of hospitalization caused by falling. Over 700,000 people annually get admitted in the hospital due to falling with head and hip fractures. More than 95% of hip fractures, additionally are caused due to falling, more often in women than men (CDC, 2016). According to the estimation provided by world health organization (WHO), 28-35% of falling occurs in geriatric patients, over 65 per year (WHO, 2016). It is estimated that the worlds geriatric population is increasing faster than the young population, reaching 841 million in 2013. This rate has quadrupled its value after 1950. Census estimation showed that, by 2050, the geriatric population will multiply three times, increasing the rate of falling amongst them and if preventive measures are not undertaken in time. This will increase the burden of care in healthcare facilities (United Nation, 2013). The process of clinical decision making cycle is described as the process by chich the nursing staff will deicide from options of planning which is relevant to the patient. The individual decisions are different depending on patient situation (Thompson, Aitken, Doran Dowding, 2013). Component of decision making is based on a model approach called DECIDE. The model adheres to understanding of the problem, setting criteria, alternative analysis, identification of the best suitable option, care plan development and evaluation of the decided plan of care. It is important to focus on decision making to establish as a nursing staff quickly affecting the care for patient and receiving safe outcome for patient (Guo, 2008). The paper discusses the risk related to falling association with fractures and injuries in geriatric patients, comparing the HAAD and JCI guidelines of standard practice relevant to the issue, demonstration of clinical reasoning cycle understanding, application of the cycl e relevant to the situation and providing recommendation as well as interventional techniques to minimize the risk of falling, followed by a conclusion. Fall related fractures and risk factors The definition of fall, given by WHO is unintentional event where the person will come to rest in the ground or the floor excluding the intentional change of position to rest in the furniture (WHO, WHO global report on falls prevention in older age, 2007). Geriatric patients who live in care homes of nursing facilities have more tendencies of falling than others living with a community (WHO, WHO global report on falls prevention in older age, 2007). There are four dimension of risk factors associated with falling which are related to biology, behaviour, socio-economy and environment. Factors affecting biology are risk factors which cannot be improved in geriatric patients over 65 years, cognition, physical ability as well as chronic diseases. Influence of behaviour is dependent on external factors like substance abuse of drugs and alcohol, sedentary lifestyle and footwear issues. The third dimension is related to factors influencing environment, associated with other factors like wet floors or staircases, dim lights, rough and bumpy roads and footpaths et cetra. Lastly, the factors influenced by socio-economic factors, like less income in family, illiteracy, health care inaccessibility, lack of housing and interaction with other people (WHO, WHO global report on falls prevention in older age, 2007). Hips fracture is commonly associated with light-headedness complaint from the fall patients along with posture instability and distress. It was observed in a sstudy in 2013, Brazil that light-headedness was a common complaint among 45% of geriatric patients and amongst them women were reported to be 71.6% (Suzana Albuquerque de Moreas, Wuber Jefferson de Souza Soares, Eduardo Ferriolli Monica Rodrigues Perracini, 2013). The HAAD standards and Joint commission international (JCI) regarding geriatric patients are discussed in the following section HAAD and JCI standards The governing body of HAAD amongst the sectors of healthcare is present in Abu Dhabi. The facility has the aim to provide excellent healthcare facility to the population and revive their safety. The JCI on the other hand strives to achieve improvement on the quality of care and sfety of the patient in healthcare facilities. Their standards of guidelines number six state that to minimize the risk of safety of patient goals are to be set to prevent falling incidents. The JCI, 2015 published sentinels to alarm the risk factors associated with falling in a health care settings. Credibility of such incidents are to be taken by the authority (Zhani, 2015) Clinical reasoning cycle The definition of clinical reasoning is as follows, process whereby nurses will collect cues, process the information, identify the problem and patient situation, plan and implement the interventions, evaluate the outcomes, reflect on and learn from the process. the importance of clinical reasoning is relevant to nursing to improve the patient conditions and achieve better outcomes. Early recognition of condition is facilitated by clinical reasoning cycle application as well as minimizing the risk that can jeopardise patient outcome. Combination of more than one standard is possible using this cycle (Jones, 2013). The following paragraph describes the steps associated with clinical reasoning cycle. Consider the patient situation The case study is about a patient named Mrs. S. Mariam, who is 70 year old. She was admitted in the emergency unit in 2 May 2016. The cause of admission was because she has slipped and fracture her pelvic on the left while inside the house. The patients daughter informed that Mrs. Mariam had been facing light-headedness for three months prior to the incident and her admission. The patient has a previous history of hypertension but no history of surgery. Mrs. Mariam is currently wedded, dwelling in Abu Dhabi along with her husband and family whom she is very close with. Collect cues / Information This stage of clinical reasoning has three segments that is required to be followed. The foremost segment is to review the information at hand. The patient has a medical history of hypertension for the past 25 years. She complained of having dizzy feeling but neglected it for the previous three months along with cerumen impaction in both ears. Analysis of vital signs of the patient showed that her blood pressure (BP) was 150/70 and pulse in the periphery was 88 beats per minute (BPM), respiratory rate of 16 breaths per minute and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 99%. The patient is currently taking 5 mg of amlodipine to treat her hypertension, 16 mg of betahistine for treatment of vertigo, for cerumen impaction treatment, she takes docusate, 40 mg enoxaparin for anticoagulation. 0.5mg alprazolam for sleeping and nalbuphine 10 mg as needed. On the 1st of march 2016, the patients blood test was taken which reflected that her red blood cell count was quite low; 3.14, haemoglobin was 81, hema tocrit count was 0.250 mean corpuscle volume- 79.6, mean Hb corpuscle- 25.8 and mean platelet vlloum was 12.3. the x-ray scan was done for femur, spine lumboscaral, pelvis and hip on the right side on the 2 May 2016. Analysis of the report showed presence of fracture in the intertrochantric femur and lumbar scoliosis on the right side. Surgery was decided to be done on the 3 may 2016 on the left side femur utilizing Intermedullary (IM) nailing method. Preceding the operation the patient was observed to high BP and Hb count decreased from 8 to 7. The patient was administered with two units of blood bag that same day. A second round of blood test was done on the patient to understand the cause of Hb declination that became 10g/L after blood transfusion. Physiotherapy was recommended to the patient for managing ache, complication aversion and exercise. The next step is to accumulate fresh data, after assessment the patient signs of proper cognition and her Glasgow coma score were 15/15 . Mephore dressing covered her right leg which underwent surgery and she read 20 on Braden scale. The morse scale showed her risck of falling was 70 and her 20 canula gauge was placed in the right hand which is covered with crepe bandage along with Foleys catheter insertion. The Wong Baker faces scale showed 4/10 pain score. The last segment is the recollection of found data; Mrs. Mariam, risk high from falling with a Morse score of 70. She showed anaemic symptoms due to lowering of components of blood. She had high blood pressure postoperative condition along with normal pain threshold, cooperative and stabilized vital signs. Process Information This stage with regard to the patient situation is considered to do interpretation, discrimination, relation, inference, matching, prediction, and analysis. Interpretation; except the MPV, all other blood components like Hb, RBC, Hct, MCH and MCV were found to decrease. This shows that the patient was showing anaemic symptoms. The Morse fall score showed that it was very risky for Mrs. Mariam to fall but Braden score was normal. Considering that the patient underwent surgery, the pain score was plausible. Discrimination; the immediate priority is to lower the Morse fall score, vertigo and pain score. Relation; cerumen impact could be the result of vertigo and light-headedness in the patients case. Pain can induce high BP. Inference; in light of the recent events, it can be inferred that the patient is to be kept under strict monitoring to avoid any postoperative complication or issues related to prolonged bed rest. Reassessment is important to check for pain threshold to ensure prope r medicine efficacy. Physiotherapy rehabilitation was recommended to her by the doctor. Matching; comparing with another similar case of a female patient showed same postoperative symptoms but did not undergo IM. Although the operation was successful, the showed anemic symptoms and high BP along with a development of fall anxiety. Prediction; it is essential to ensure effective pain management as to avoid wound healing delay, immobilization repercussions like ulceration, deep vein thrombosis. Blood transfusion is referred if other signs of blood loss are noticed. A research conducted in 2014 by the World Journal of Orthopaedics (WJO), shows that anaemic symptoms, loss of urine retention, pressure scars, hospital acquired pneumonia, DVT, cardiac arrhythmia and postoperative delirium along with gastrointestinal bleeding is common is cases of hip fracture surgery (Carpintero, Caeiro, Carpintero, Morales, Silva Mesa, 2014). Identify Problem It is essential to bring about all the clinical data to formulate a summary of the patient condition. The three primary diagnosis of nursing was carried out keeping the patients age, gender and family support. Diagnosis for pain management is the first priority with respect to the condition of the surgery and pain score report along with motor skill assessment, nutrition, sleep assessment and administration of analgesics repeatedly. The next diagnosis is to provide physiotherapy to improve the patients mobility post surgery and check for ache manifestations along with motor skill assessment. The third diagnosis is to avoid falling risk post surgery, light-headedness which is common for people her age. Establish goals It is necessary to make sure that the patient suffers no lingering post surgical ache, immobilisation issues, complications, wound healing delay, health restoration and dependency issue, activity assessment, cognition assessment and to make sure patient is aware of the repercussion of old age falling to avoid further complications. Take an Action My preceptor and I thought through interventional method that could be undertaken which would help the patient safety. The PQRST technique was applied to assess the pain which was also the foremost intervention to improve the patients health. Risk factors that would enhance the pain were assessed; sharp aching sensation radiating in the entire right limb (4/10) was initiated when the patients position was shifted. Additionally, preventive measure to avoid falling was implemented with regards to the recommendation of HAAD policy. The measures were; lowered position of the bed, elevated side rails, personal items and calling bell kept within hands distance to the patient, night lights provided and the bed-wheels were locked. Constant monitoring of vital signs was maintained as per the norms of the hospital. Administration of analgesics to manage pain, enoxaparin for anti-coagulation to avoid DVT, amlodipine for BP regulation was provided. Physiotherapist was able to mobilize her using wheel chair and prevent complication. Evaluation The nursing goals were partially fulfilled before completed before discharge planning was commenced. The patients pain level was null at resting phase but reached with 2 when mobilised. She was discharged with consent and referred to a care facility. Patient and her family were engaged throughout the care plan and were taught about the condition during discharge to ensure no medication or patient safety occurred post discharge. They were also informed about the common physiological malfunctions that elderly people go through to help care for her more precisely. Reflection I will be using the Rolfe reflective model to express my thought regarding the case study and answer three main questions: What?, So what? and Now what?. Answering to the first query; Mrs. S. Mariam is a married elderly 77 year old woman living in Abu Dhabi with her family who fell own at home anf got a fractured pelvis. She has admitted to the facility and diagnosed with extracapsular hip fracture on the right side and a medical history of hypertension which persisted for more than 25 years. My preceptor and I were the designated nurses given to take care of her. I tried to maintain her safety and applied preventive measures against falling along with nursing support o reduce her distress. I tried the application of massage in the affected area and spoke through her care to reduce pain and distress non-pharmacologically. The act was appreciated by my preceptor as according to her emotional support helps patients overcome their recovery faster. I was empathising for her situation and provided pain medication along with emotional support. Answering to the question So what?; If I had let the patient carry on suffering with her pain, she would have been unable to receive slumber, move properly and intake less food. All this would have affected her condition and the healing span would have been lengthened. Thirdly, Now what?; I received praising from my preceptor who pointed out that my care plan for her was successful as we were regarded the norms of the HAAD guidelines for patient safety and helped her calm her aching sensation that lead to her proper motor functionality like using the toilet, eating and getting used to the wheel chair et cetra. The only dispute worth mentioning was the inefficiency of the nursing team. The workload could have been reduced if the fellow staffs cooperated to reduce pressure. Good team work would have helped the patient improve faster in a safer manner. Recommendations Keeping a goal to achieve patient safety ensures better health concern and minimizes the risk of hospital readmissions amongst the old aged people. Patient safety should be the focus of the care plan along with including the family ensures improvement of patients quality of life. Patient as well as family education is important to ensure no disparity in the support system. Encouragement should be provided to care givers to note down the implication of adverse threats, which would help the care facility opportunity to provide proper assessment and improve acre management in times of error. Contemplation, foreseeing and double checking is importance before any decision is made so as to reduce patient safety risk. Conclusion Summation of the discussion, provide insight that the primary reason for hospital admission is falling. Women are commonly observed to be admitted in the hospital than men, when it comes to hip or bone fractures. Geriatric show a common reasoning for hospital admission that is light-headedness along with other risk factors as a resultant of falling anf other bone injury. Clinical reasoning along with good decision making skills provides accuracy in care planning in hospitals which minimizes rate of falling or other similar incidents. References Carl Thompson, Leanne Aitken, Diane Doran Dawn Dowding. (2013). An agenda for clinical decision making and judgement in nursing research and education. International journa of nursing studies, 50, 1720-1726. CDC. (2016, January 20). Home and recreational safety. Retrieved on March 23, 2016, from Centers for disease control and prevention: https://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html Guo, K. L. (2008). DECIDE: A decision-making model for more effective decision making by health care managers. Lippincott nursing centre, 27 (2), 118-127. Jones, L. (2013). Advanced clinical decision making. Australia : Pearson. Michal Grivna, Hani O Eid Fikri M Abu-Zidan. (2014). Epidemiology, morbidity and mortality from fall-related injuries in the united arab emirates. Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine, 22 (51), 1-7. Nations, U. (2013). world population ageing. New York: United nations department of economic and social affairs. Pedro Carpintero, Jose Ramon Caeiro, Rocio Carpintero, Angela Morales, Samuel Silva Manuel Mesa. (2014). Complication of hip fracture: A review. World journal of orthopedics, 5 (4), 402-411. Suzana Albuquerque de Moreas, Wuber Jefferson de Souza Soares, Eduardo Ferriolli Monica Rodrigues Perracini. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study. Biomedical central geriatrics, 13 (4), 1471-2318. WHO. (2016). Violence and injury prevention. Retrieved on March 23, 2016, from World health organization: https://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/other_injury/falls/en/ WHO. (2007). WHO global reporton falls prevention in older age. Switzerland: World health organization. Zhani, E. E. (2015, September 28). New sentinel event alert focuses on preventing patient falls. Retrieved on March 23, 2016, from The joint commission: https://www.jointcommission.org/new_sentinel_event_alert_focuses_on_preventing_patient_falls
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Questions: 1.1 Discuss the principles of strategic management and the role of strategic marketing management in Emirates Group.1.2 Explain the processes involved in strategic marketing. Illustrate your answer with examples from Emirates Group.1.3 Evaluate the links between strategic marketing and corporate strategy. Give examples of how marketing strategy is influenced by corporate strategy in Emirates Group?2.1 What are the different tools and models used in strategic marketing management? Explain them and assess the value of models used in the strategic marketing planning of Emirates Group? Are You Daunted by the Thought of Due Assignments? Avail Our Services and Receive Assignment Help from Experts. 2.2 Discuss the links between strategic positioning and marketing tactics. In what way are the tactics related to the strategic positioning used by Emirates Group?2.3 Analyse the merits of using relationship marketing in a given strategic marketing strategy of Emirates Group. 3.1 For the selected organisation, what are the growth opportunities? Use appropriate marketing techniques to ascertain growth opportunities in a market. 3.2 What are the different marketing strategy options available to this organisation? Plan how to use the marketing strategy options in a market?3.3 Create appropriate marketing objectives for the marketing plan, based on your research of the organisation and the selected market. 4.1 Based on your research of the current external environment, report on the impact of changes in the external environment on a marketing strategy for Emirates Group.4.2 Conduct an internal analysis to identify current strengths and weaknesses in a marketing strategy as applied to the Emirates Group. 4.3 What are the key local, national or global emerging themes affecting the organization? Propose strategic marketing responses to key emerging themes in a marketing strategy. Answers: 1.1. Principles of Strategic Management and Role of Strategic Marketing Management in Emirates Group The concept of strategic management emerged in 1970s and in the present dynamic business environment importance of strategic management has been increasing rapidly (Viljoen and Dann, 2003). Strategic management activities include development, communication as well as implementation of the strategic plan. Strategic management is consisted of five important constituents: vision, objectives, strategy, implementation and rectification. The principles of strategic management focus on considering different parts of an organization as whole. Strategic management considers the external environment of a firm and it focuses on gaining the competitive advantage. The vision of an organization helps in indicating potential of the company and the states which are desired to achieve in future. Therefore, the objectives are set which needs to be achieved by the company. The next step of the strategic management of the company is to develop strategy which will help in meeting the objectives (Hunger a nd Wheelen, 2000). Strategic management of an organization is responsible for designing a plan for implementing the strategies. Therefore, it monitors the planned activities so that the achievement of the goals is ensured. The corporate strategy has a significant correlation with the strategic marketing strategy of the firm. It has been found that the marketing strategies are the integral part of the corporate strategy in order to achieve the organizational objectives (Anderson and Vincze, 2004). Strategic marketing is one of the most critical business functions of Emirates Group. Emirates group is a large organization and a significant organization in the travel, tourism and leisure industry. Presently, it has fifty business units along with associated companies and it is primarily based in UAE. The employee base of the company is greater than 62,000. Emirates airline is one of the leading global airlines and it is one of the key division of the group. Dnata is associated with offering services in the field of IT solution, travel, cargo, ground handling and flight catering (Theemiratesgroup.com, 2015). From the annual report of the firm it has been found that the company has been able to continue its growth over the years. The revenue of the company has increased by 13.4% and the operating profit is improved by 50.1%. In 2013- 2014, it was estimated that the capacity of the airline has enhanced by 32% and the profit margin has been increased to 3.9% from 3.1% in the previous year. These figures clearly indicate that the company has been able to manage its marketing activities efficiently for achieving consistent growth (Emirates United Arab Emirates, 2014). The strategic marketing in the Emirates group is responsible for determination of appropriate pricing strategy, product strategy, marketing communication strategy, customer relationship management process for ensuring growth in spite of the global challenges(Fernando, Mat Saad and Sabri Haron, 2012). Strategic marketing has focused on integration of promotional activities through adoption of the social media. The positive economic benefits of the company are attributed to the strategic marketing management of the Emirates Group (Chernev, 2012). 1.2. Procedures Involved in Strategic Marketing Strategic marketing is a systematic approach that focuses on the designing strategies for the organization in order to ensure successful achievement of the organizational objectives (Viljoen and Dann, 2003). The procedures involved in the strategic marketing management can be discussed by studying the procedures in case of the Emirates Airline, key division of the Emirate group. Vision and Value Analysis: The first step of strategic marketing is to analyze the mission statement of the organization for analyzing the purpose of existence of the company. Emirates Group has significantly focused on the business ethics as the foundation of their success. The company has been providing care to the customers, employees, shareholders along with the community and environment (Jeffs, 2008). The company is committees for achieving highest standards in every aspect of operational activities. Additionally, it has been identified that the company has been emphasizing on maintain the global reputation for excellence in the industry. This clearly implies that the products and services of the company need to be differentiated, upgraded on order to retain the industry leadership in the global market (Anderson and Vincze, 2004). Situation Analysis: The next important step of the strategic marketing procedure is the analysis of situation. Various strategic management tools are used by the management of the organization for analyzing the situation. In case of Emirates group, the management may use SWOT analysis for getting a preliminary overview of the internal situation through identification of the major strengths and weaknesses of the company along with the external situation through identifications of the opportunities as well as threats. Additionally, Porters five forces analysis can be conducted through getting an insight regarding level of competition, condition of the suppliers, customer analysis etc. PESTEL analysis is useful for analyzing the macroeconomic environment of the organization. It helps in analyzing the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal factors. PESTEL analysis is effective in order to determine business integration in new nation (Jeyarathnam, 2008). Situational analysis help s the company to recognize the factors which are important to consider at the time o development of marketing strategies (Capon, 2008). Setting Objectives: One of the most important processes of strategic marketing management is to set marketing objectives which is aligned with the corporate objectives, values and mission of the company. In case of Emirates Group, extensive importance has been given to set SMART objectives for a particular period of time(Henry, 2008). Development of Strategy: Strategy development is one of the most important aspects of strategic management. In case of Emirates group, the company considers the implication of vision and value analysis, situation analysis for development of the appropriate marketing strategy. Development of the marketing strategy ensures that the strategic goals set by the organization are met effectively (Jeyarathnam, 2008). Evaluation: The set of strategies are implemented in different levels of the organization. These strategies are expected to deliver the desired outcome and hence, needed to be monitored (Jeffs, 2008). Therefore, one of the important responsibilities of the strategic management department of Emirates Group is to evaluate the strategies in order to finds its effectiveness for the company and relevance to the pre-determined objectives (Clark, 2000). 1.3. Links between Strategic Marketing and Corporate Strategy and Influence of Corporate Strategy on the Marketing Strategy of Emirates Corporate strategy is considered to be the base of all other plans or strategy of the organization. It is evident that the strategic marketing activities have a significant association with the corporate strategy of the firm. Corporate strategy is developed on the basis of the vision, mission, values, culture and goals of the company. The functional strategy of the organization focuses on development of strategies related to finance, marketing, research and development, information technology, operations, human resource etc. All the functional strategies are developed for meeting the organizational objectives and aligning with the corporate strategy of the organization. Corporate strategy is the foundation of all the business strategies including the marketing strategy of the organization. Often the strategic marketing coincides with the corporate strategy for meeting the organizational objectives through marketing activities. The corporate strategy develops a generalized plan for th e growth, development and future prospect of the company. On the other hand, strategic marketing uses various tools such as marketing mix, growth plan, customer relationship management etc by conforming to the organizational values to achieve the corporate objectives (Ungson and Wong, 2008). In case of the Emirates group, corporate strategies are found to be developed at the strategic level of the company. The corporate strategy of Emirates Group has extensively focused on the growth and profitability. Additionally, it ahs focused on the determination of the organizational structure, managing the gearing ratio effectively and enhancing the value of the shareholders. Additionally, corporate strategy focuses on diversification, acquisition, merger, implementation of new technology, optimization of the cost for improving the overall profit margin of the organization (Heracleous, Wirtz and Johnston, 2004). On the other hand, the marketing strategy of the Emirates group has extensively emphasized on the development of efficient plan in order to sell the services of the company. First of all, emirate group considers the marketing mix and develops strategies for each element such as product, price, place and promotion. Marketing strategy is responsible for identification of the target market and presenting the product to the target audience for meeting the expectation of consumers. Pricing strategy determines the appropriate pricing technique so that the sales can be maximized. For example, during the lean season and advanced booking to a less demanded destination, Emirates offer huge discount seasonally (Park, Qu and Lee, 2011). Additionally, promotional strategies of Emirates group play a major role in communicating with the target market. Lately, it has integrated its promotional mix to the social media such as Face book, twitter etc. Appropriate implementation of the corporate strategy is dependent on the success of the functional strategies. Hence, the marketing department of Emirates has huge responsibility for ensuring the achievement of the corporate goals through implementation of the corporate strategy of growth (Mellahi, Frynas and Finlay, 2005). Emirates are planning to continue its growth through international business integration. For succes sful business integration of Emirates, effective marketing strategy is essential for influencing the purchasing decision of the target market (Kotler, 2000). 2.1. Different Tools and Models in Strategic Marketing Management in Emirates Strategic marketing management utilizes various tools as well as models for designing appropriate strategies for achievement of the corporate strategies. Porters Generic Strategy, Porters Five Forces Model, Boston Consulting Group Matrix, SWOT Analysis etc are the common tools used by various organizations in order to develop effective strategy for marketing to achieve the corporate goals. In case of Emirates Group, it is important to utilize various strategic marketing tools for developing new strategies for achieving sustainable growth across the globe for long term. Therefore, the strategic models need to be applied as well as the results will be used for designing, implementation as well as monitoring of the strategies. This section will focus on discussing the implication of different strategic models that are important for conducting strategic marketing activities in order to compete in the dynamic business environment. First of all, SWOT analysis is considered to be one of the important tools which provide a preliminary idea regarding the potentials, drawbacks, growth opportunities and threats for the company. It is very important to conduct SWOT analysis regularly for identifying the major strengths of the company that can be capitalized for enhancing the sales of the company. Additionally, the identified weakness of the firm such as low presence in the airline market of United States and employee relations are needed to be revised (Anderson and Vincze, 2004). Additionally, emirates get a chance to identify the major opportunities that will support the growth objectives of the company. SWOT analysis will clearly indicate the threats so that the company can develop effective marketing strategies for combating with the threats (Capon, 2008). Porters five forces analysis is important for determining the marketing mix strategies as it significantly helps in the position of the suppliers, strength of the customers, level of competition etc. while integrating the business activities of Emirates in an international market, the marketing strategy is based on the results of the porters five forces analysis. When it is found that the market rivalry is high, Emirates has to focus on adoption of competitive pricing strategy and offering differentiated service. It has been found that the airlines market is continuously growing and becoming more competitive. Hence, it will be reflected in the market strategies of the company. Porters generic competition model will be important as it will assist in identification of the appropriate strategy that will help in competitive advantage in the dynamic as well as competitive market. The product and pricing strategy of Emirates will be assisted by the utilization of the Porters generic strategies tool. On the basis of the corporate strategy of the company, it can identify the best strategy among cost leadership, differentiation, cost focus and focused differentiation (Chernev, 2012). Emirates have adopted use of balanced scorecard for measuring the performance of the marketing strategies adopted by the company. This helps in identification of the major issues in the strategy as well as marketing performance of the organization (Drucker and Maciariello, 2008). Thus, application of various strategic tools significantly contributes in the strategic marketing management of Emirates. 2.2. Links between Strategic Positioning and Marketing Tactics Positioning is an important marketing activity that will help in identification of the market opportunity of problem and therefore development of a solution on the basis of extensive market research, market segmentation along with supporting evidences (Kotler, 2000). Strategic position is the position that is selected by the organization for meeting the marketing as well as corporate objectives. Positioning statement is formulated so that clearly state that the major purpose and key benefits of the product to the customers. Effective brand positioning is considered to be an important aspect of marketing communication (Park, Qu and Lee, 2011). Strategic positioning has significant association with the marketing tactics for every organization seeking growth. The strategic position clearly states the current as well as future position of the company. Therefore, it significantly influences the techniques for market analysis, selection of marketing strategies, methods of implementation of strategies as well as monitoring. The position statement of an organization is extensively associated with the marketing tactics that will ensure achievement of desired growth (Warren, 2008). The link between strategic positioning and marketing tactics also holds in case of Emirates Group. The position statement of Emirates group is The Finest in the Sky. The long terms objective of Emirates Airlines is to carry about 70 million passengers to greater than 180 destinations by utilization of an advanced fleet of more than 300 aircraft. The major responsibility of the strategic management is to develop effective marketing plan that will be helpful in meeting the goals. It has been anticipated that the demand will grow across the globe. It has been found that Emirates collect relevant information as well as analyze it for supporting the growth plan of the company (Capon, 2008). The strategic position of Emirates has significant influence on various marketing tactics. The positioning strategy of the company is based on the internal growth plan; strategy for market penetration, development of products has significant correlation with the marketing tactics in Emirates. It has be en found that the product strategy is an important aspect of marketing tactic which develop plan for the type, range and quality of the product. On the basis of the positioning statement of Emirates, the marketing tactics empathizes on providing superior service in comparison to its competitors. Additionally, the branding strategy of Emirates is significantly dependent upon the positioning statement. The leading airline brand has been focusing on the offering high quality service to its customer in order to achieve high level customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty. It will also help in supporting the growth objective of the company. Additionally, the pricing and promotional strategy, terms of delivery, logistics management etc (Park, Qu and Lee, 2011). 2.3. Analysis of Merits of Using Relationship Marketing in Emirates Customer relationship is considered to be one of most important corporate strategies for achieving long terms growth in the competitive market. Relationship management is an effective strategy for managing the relationship with customers. It is associated with the direct response of the marketing campaigns that focuses on the retention of the customers by meeting the expectations of the customers. This concept pays less attention to the sales transaction and prioritizes the customers satisfaction so that customer loyalty can be achieved (Kothandaraman and Wilson, 2000). The corporate strategy of Emirates has suggested that it will focus on broadening the customer base for enhancing the revenue. Hence, it becomes very important to attract more number of customers as well as retain the customers (Chernev, 2012). It must be noted that the major aim of the relationship marketing is to develop effective strategies for retaining the customer base for supporting long terms growth of the org anization. If the traditional transactional marketing approach is adopted by Emirates, it may attract significant number of customers but fail to retain them. Hence, relationship marketing has significant implication for Emirates (Weinstein, 2000). In Emirates, relationship marketing is based on the principles of customer experience management. It emphasizes on enhancing the interactions with customers in order to foster improved brand loyalty. The business communication channels are evolving and it has a significant impact on the relationship marketing of the Emirates Airlines. Presently, Emirates has a particular database for managing the customer relationship. Knowledge-driven in-Flight Service (KIS) helps in running the flight which is run during the flight for maintaining the profitable lasting association with the clients through delivery of satisfaction. This system will help to keep a track of the customers previous trips. This database will help to know about the personal preference of the passengers regarding seats, wine and food. The gathered data is extracted for offering better service to the customer (Weinstein, 2000). Additionally, Emirates has significantly focused on gathering relevant information regarding the customer expectation (Bennett and Barkensjo, 2005). These data re analyzed for using enhancing the quality of service and making significant changes in the marketing strategy. Hence, it can be inferred that the decision making process of Emirates is significantly dependent on the relationship marketing (Emirates, 2012). The relationship marketing in Emirates has enabled the organization in providing more customers centric as well as personalized service to the passengers. As relationship marketing strategy of Emirates has emphasized on catering the needs of the customers, it can be stated that relationship marketing has extensive contribution in delivering superior service to the customers for meeting their expectation (Cravens and Piercy, 1994). Consequently, it has been found that the relationship marketing will effectively retain large number of customers in Emirates. Additionally, the frequent flyer program of Emirates has been an important part of the relationship marketing. The crew of the airlines tends to invest more for the loyal customers enrolled in this program for delivering personalized service. The relationship marketing of Emirates has significantly emphasized on the up grading the customer service for achievement of the business growth objective of the organization. Thus, the relati onship marketing of Emirates has been providing significant strength to the organization for meeting the corporate objectives (Firdaus and Kanyan, 2014). 3.1. Growth Opportunities of Emirates Opportunities The Emirates Airlines of UAE is strategically targeting the African market in the upcoming decades. This will help the organization to grow by 40%. According to Sir Tim Clark, President of Emirates Airlines, this focus would help to create a Dubai Hub Africa. The reason behind tapping this market is that the Dubai Government recognized that the African market is still an untapped market in Africa and Emirates Airline can instrumentally support the regions growth. The fleet investment of Emirates in Africa tops around $7billion with operating costs of around $2billion. It presently operates in 10 different destinations. The Emirates group is currently focusing on increasing the commitment and investment in Africa. The group is planning to add up around 10 more destinations in the coming decades and have planned to add 8.5million seats in the African market. Further, the geographical location gives the African travelers an opportunity for short times of traveling. By 2020, the group ha s decided to reach out to 1.5million visitors every year. Emirates have decided to channel traffic through its Dubai Hub. According to the survey of Sabre, there are 1185353 estimated bi-directional OD passengers from UAE who are demanding Emirates flight (Maslen, 2013). Source: (Maslen, 2013) Marketing Techniques As far as the impact of environmental factors remains constant the position of Emirates Group would remain constant. The growth advantage can be determined by the scale or size, the competitors differentiation and also booming trading names. For being a successful organization, the Group needs to focus on the tactics and strategy that work well in harmony for providing best possible level of return surrounded with efficiency. Both tactics and strategy should be designed based on the situational environment. The firm needs to consider more than the business structure, it additionally needs to take a fitting position inside the business. This situating will focus the game changer a firm can have, specifically minimal effort or separation against focused degree at the wide or restricted business sector (See below figure) Source: (Mindtools.com, 2015) The positioning of Emirates in the expense authority quadrant is attained to not just through economies of scale in examination, advancement and advancement additionally through learning, information and involvement underway and operational methodologies and in addition the way it deals with its establishments. 3.2. Different marketing strategy of Emirates There are various marketing options for Emirates to grow in the African market. The BCG Matrix (Boston Consulting Group) as shown below is one of such options that would help to create as strategic view of their business that can be utilized in various decision making aids. Source: (Valuebasedmanagement.net, 2015) In the event that the right choice is made and the products services chosen attains to a high market share, it turns into a star. Stars have high market share in high-development markets. Stars create expansive money streams for the business additionally obliges huge integrationtures of cash to maintain their development. Stars are frequently the focuses of expansive consumptions for publicizing and innovative work to enhance the products services and to empower it to build a prevailing position in the business. Cash cows are specialties units that have high market share in a low-development market. These are generally products services in the development phase of the products services life cycle. They are normally entrenched products services with wide shopper acknowledgement, so deals incomes are generally high. The technique for such products services is to put minimal expenditure into keeping up the products services and redirect the substantial benefits created into produ cts services with all the more long haul profit potential, i.e. starts and question marks. Dogs are organizations with low piece of the overall industry in low-development markets. These are generally cash cows that have lost their market share or the question marks the organization has chosen not to create. The prescribed system for this business is to discard them for whatever income they will produce and reinvest the cash in more appealing business (stars and question marks) (Goel, 2009). Having utilized the Boston Consulting Group framework above, it ought to likewise be noted that the BCG network experiences constrained variables on which to support asset allotment choices among the organization making up the corporate portfolio. The BCG grid is best utilized, then, as a starting point yet surely not as the last determination for asset designation choices as it was maybe initially expected for Emirates business position (Iatrou and Oretti, 2007). 3.3. Marketing objectives of Emirates The strategies help the organization to underpin its success. Strategists have a huge measure of both scope and obligation in creating and adjusting the vital choices of an association. The incalculable choices needed of these directors can be overpowering considering the potential outcomes of mistaken choices. One approach to manage this unpredictability is through categorisation; one categorisation plan is to arrange corporate-level method choices into three separate sorts or terrific systems. These fabulous techniques include endeavours to extend business operations (development methods), diminish the extent of business operations (conservation procedures) or keep up the present state of affairs (soundness methodologies). All the more particularly, development techniques are intended to grow an association's execution, generally as measured by deals, benefits, item blend, market scope, piece of the pie or other bookkeeping and business sector based variables. Regular development techniques include one or a greater amount of the accompanying: With a concentration strategy the firm endeavours to attain to more noteworthy business infiltration by getting to be exceedingly effective at adjusting its market with a constrained product offering. By utilizing a vertical integration technique, the firm endeavours to grow the extent of its present operations by undertaking business exercises earlier performed by one of its suppliers (backward integration) or by undertaking business exercises performed by a business in its channel of dissemination (forward integration) (Shaw, 2011). A diversification strategy involves moving into distinctive markets or adding diverse products to its blend. On the off chance that the markets or products are identified with existing item or administration offerings, the method is called concentric diversification. On the off chance that development is into services or products disconnected to the company's current business, the enhancement is called conglomerate diversification (Hoffman, Bateson and Hoffman, 2006). Further, the marketing mix concept is a timeless technique that the Emirates need to focus on for categorising different strategies. By concentrating on the service marketing mix, Emirates can reap and adopt different strategies. Failing to adhere to this concept may become a huge failure or disaster for the Emirates. This service marketing mix is the activity that helps the organization to deliver, communicate and create customer value. The marketing mix mainly consists of 4Ps Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Since marketing is a very sophisticated stream, the service industries have further added physical evidence, process and people. Thus Emirates need to focus on all the 7Ps of service (Sharma, 2008). Product: Emirates has always been focusing on offering the latest technologies and best quality services to the customers. This helps the travellers the ability to receive and send mails and also SMS messages from different class. Price: Emirates focuses on premium pricing strategy that mainly provides high pricing strategy than others. However, Emirates need to keep in mind that the service or the product they are planning to provide should understand the worth that the customers are ready to provide. In Africa, as it is developing country there is a need of low-pricing strategy as the customers as quite price sensitive. This would help the organization to generate more revenue from this market (Loudon, Stevens and Wrenn, 2005). Place: Emirates have around 122 branches apart from UAE that gives excellent services to the customers. In this way creating helping centers in Africa can help to capture the customers. Emirates Airlines also has an online website that consists of 9 different languages targeting different nationalities. Promotion: For advertising, Emirates can advertise their services and products in newspaper that can mostly attract the segment and also in cheap magazines. Billboards are also one of the best advertising tools that can help to attract people from everywhere. People: Emirates Airlines Management needs to promote common goal to all the employees. This would help to make an efficient team working collaboratively towards the goals of the organization. Through this the management can focus on the needs of the employees and also the customers. This would help to sustain in this competitive world (Parry, 2005). Process: the services of Emirates Airlines mainly emphasizes on the operation departments like Business and First Class Lounges, then special services like helping unaccompanied minors or the disable passengers. Further to maintain good relation with the customers, Boarding services, Check-in and the Baggage services in Airport helps to maintain relationship with the customers. Physical Evidence: The Airlines of Emirates mainly emphasizes on reducing the emission of carbon dioxide due to burning of fuel. Emirates Airlines is focusing on how to decrease the emission and make an ecological friendly environment. Thus they are utilizing less resource and thus developing less pollution and waste. 4.1. Impact of Changes in External Environment on the Marketing Strategy of Emirates External environment of a business has significant potential to influence the business activities of an organization. The wave of globalization has influenced various organizations to integrate their business operation into the international market. In this case, analysis of the external environment is given extensive importance (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2005). Business strategies for international market are developed on the basis of the analysis of external environment. Additionally, it has been found that the external environment is dynamic and various components of the environment changes with time. The company needs to keep an eye on the changes in the external environment as it will influence the marketing strategies of the company (Henry, 2008). In case of Emirates various external factors have significant potential to reorient the marketing strategies. Emirates Airline is present in 40 countries and the external environment is different for each of the nations. First of all, if there is a change in the legal framework and regulation relevant to the business operations of Emirates, it may affect the cost of service which will affect the marketing strategy of the organization. Economy of the nation plays a major role in determination of the marketing strategy of Emirates. If it is observed that a nation is encountering economic downturn, Emirates must consider it for re-formulation of the marketing strategy. In difficult times, Emirates need to decline the price for making it affordable for the present market situation. Additionally, the company can adopt some cost cutting strategy for offering discounts (Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2005). Though social factors play a major role in determination of the marketing strategies, it must be noted that social changes do not take place suddenly. However, in order to deal with social changes, Emirates need to reformulate their product as well as promotional strategy on the basis of changing demand as well as psychology of the customers (Park, Qu and Lee, 2011). Technology has an important influence on the development of marketing strategy especially in case of place and promotional strategy. It has been found that the along with the advancement of technology the marketing strategy of Emirates need to be changed. (Kotler, 2000) For example, increasing dependence on web technology must be capitalized for communicating with the target audience. Emirates have been present on the popular social media sites for networking with the social media users. It has been using social media for undertaking promotional activities. Additionally, the online booking has provided greater convenience to the customers (Jung, 2014). Competition is one of the important elements of the external environment for developing the marketing strategy of Emirates. If there is a change in the level of competition, Emirates need to change the marketing strategy. For instance, if the level of competition enhances, the company needs to differentiate its products as well as pricing strategy needs to be changed in order to increase the customer base even in the competitive market. Hence, it can be concluded that the external environment has significant influence on the marketing strategy of the company (Mellahi, Frynas and Finlay, 2005). 4.2. Internal Analysis of Marketing Strategy of Emirates for Identification of Strengths and Weaknesses Marketing strategy of an organization has major role to play in ensuring success of the firm through achievement of corporate objectives. The marketing strategy changes over time and it is very important to identify which strategy needs to be changed and why. Hence, analysis of the marketing strategy of Emirates will be helpful in identification of the strengths as well as weakness of the marketing strategy of the company. The strength of the marketing strategy will be capitalized and on the other hand, weaknesses of the strategy will help in the improving the marketing strategy that will ensure achievement of the corporate objectives of Emirates. Strengths of the Marketing Strategy: The marketing strategy of Emirates has been significantly focusing on the need and expectations of the customers in terms of product quality. This has significantly helped the organization in assessing needs of the customers and therefore changes the product strategy accordingly for catering the customers (Dalrymple and Parsons, 2000). It has been found that this strategy is very useful in attracting as well as retaining the customers. The marketing strategy of Emirates has adopted relationship market to manage customer relationship in an efficient manner. The Knowledge-driven in-Flight Service (KIS) and frequent flyer program of Emirates has focused on maintaining database of their customers. It has helped in keeping a track of their customer preferences for personalized services. The marketing strategy of Emirates has adopted effective promotional strategies for reaching the target market. Emirates have been utilizing the social media networks for promotional activities. It is a major strength for the organization (Winer, 2000). Weaknesses of the Marketing Strategy: Though the marketing strategy of the company has been found to be effective in achieving the organizational goal, weakness is recognized which is important for improving it. The pricing strategy of Emirates has been found to be premium pricing strategy. Hence, it cannot be afforded by huge number of customers. The company must consider that the competition in the airline industry is growing across the world. Hence, it is important to change the pricing strategy for addressing number customers. It has been found that the company has been emphasizing on enhancing the customer base. Hence, in order to achieve this objective the pricing strategy must be changed. The advertising strategy can also be changed for attracting the more number of customers (Kansu and Mamuti, 2013). 4.3. Local, National, Global Emerging Themes Affecting Emirates and Marketing Strategies for Responding to those The company has to pay significant is based in United Arab Emirates. It has been observed that the nation has been encountering significant growth opportunities. It is important to analyze the emerging themes for responding to it by reformulation of the marketing strategies. UAE is becoming the international business hub and the business tourism has enhanced in UAE. The company must focus on development of innovative marketing strategies for capturing the growing number of international customers. Additionally, it has been found that increasing number of competitors have been intensifying the level of rivalry in the airline market (Hunger and Wheelen, 2000). It is evident that Emirates is one of the leading airlines of the world. However, it must consider the new competitors for development of the marketing plan. It needs to be noted that the presently Emirates has been planning to enhance its customer base across the globe. In United Kingdom, the company has a significant market bas e and operating successfully over the years. The marketing strategy of the company needs to be changed along with the present economic condition of United Kingdom. In the Asian market, Emirates airline has been operating successfully. Additionally, it has been reported that the company is experiencing significant growth in Australian market. Moreover, Emirates has focused on exploring the Australian market through making significant investments. All these international activities will be affected due to the global emerging themes. Extensive growth in number of the internet users and dependence on web has enabled the customers to access the global airline market. They also get a chance to compare the services, price and values offered by different airline service provider before making purchasing decision (Doyle, 2000). Hence, Emirates need to reformulate their marketing strategy for achieving sustainable growth in the international market (Mellahi, Frynas and Finlay, 2005). Another important emerging trend is globalization. Various organizations across the globe have been focusing on integrating its business activities to the foreign countries. This trend also holds in case of airline industry. Consequently, the competition in the international market has been intensifying. It has become important to consider the international player and their presence in the international market for designing the marketing strategies(Hitt, Ireland and Hoskisson, 2005). It must be considered that the marketing strategies of Emirates must be competitive as well as growth oriented. Additional emphasize must be given on the attracting more number of customers as well as retaining those in order to achieve the objective of enhanced customer base. Additionally, it has to focus on adoption of effective promotional strategies in order to communicate with the target market regarding their quality of service, discounts, key features and benefits of the service etc (Drucker and M aciariello, 2008). Additionally, the company must focus on adoption of competitive pricing in order to achieve sustainable growth in the increasingly competitive market. References Anderson, C. and Vincze, J. (2004).Strategic marketing management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Bennett, R. and Barkensjo, A. 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